American Revolution 

Battles of the Revolution

    1. Lexington and Concord- this was the first battle of the American Revolution- some say it was “the shot heard around the world”
    2. Bunker Hill/ Boston- The first battle where the British took heavy casualties. This taught the British that this war would not be easy.
    3. The Battle of Long Island- The start of the British plan to capture New York and divide the colonies. The British defeated the Patriots badly and General Washington had to escape with half his men to Pennsylvania. 
    4. Britain’s plan to take New York- Great Britain had a plan to capture New York and divide the colonies into two. If they do this they could win the American Revolution.
    5. Saratoga- The turning point in the war for the Patriots. The last piece of the British plan to capture New York depended on them winning Saratoga. Washington took Saratoga and defeated the British. This battle showed the French that the colonists could actually win this war. After the battle the French took a more active role in helping the colonists.


  1. The Continental Congress- Gathering of wealthy representatives from the 13 colonies. Gathered to decide whether they should unit and help Massachusetts fight Britain.
  2. The Declaration of Independence- Letter to King George III and Parliament declaring the 13 colonies free from Great Britain. It also was a list of reasons as to why we wanted and had the right to be free. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.
  3. Valley Forge- Winter after Saratoga that the Patriots had to survive in order to get French help in the spring. It was one of the coldest winters on record and many froze to death.

  • Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.
  • Colonists loyal to Great Britain were called Tories or Loyalists.  
  • Parliament is the British legislature.
  • King George III
  • Paul Revere


English Colonies


Massachusetts Bay Colony- Puritans founded the colony

  • Religious fanatics
  • Created the General Court- Early form of colonial representative government

Virginia’s House of Burgesses- The first representative government developed in the colonies.

Mayflower Compact- First example of self-governing in the colonies. It was a list of rules and agreements that the Pilgrims signed on the Mayflower.

Act of Toleration- A colonial law that granted Protestants and Catholics the right to worship freely.

Pennsylvania founded by William Penn

  • William Penn was a Quaker Quakers preached and believed in religious freedom.


Rhode Island Roger Williams founded the colony

  • Taught religious freedom.

Jamestown Colony- English explorers were interested in finding gold and wealth in Virginia

 Mercantilism- Colonial economic system that states a nation is only as wealthy as the amount of gold they have in their treasury. This system made nations explore the world looking for gold.

  • Tobacco is the main crop of Virginia and the South.


New England Colonies- Subsistence farming – grow only what the family needs.

Middle Colonies- Tenet Farming- Farms are rented out to workers.

Southern Colonies- Plantation farming- Slaves work the plantation- tobacco.

 The Triangle Trade- A trade pattern set up to get slaves from Africa and bring them to the colonies. The trade went from America with tobacco, to Europe for weapons, and then to Africa for slaves.

The Middle Passage was the route from Africa with the Slaves on the ship. This is known for being horrible and terrible for the Africans captured and sold into slavery.

 The Peter Zenger Trial- created the right of Freedom of the Press. 


Dutch New York

The Dutch came to New York looking for Beaver Pelts.

Peter Minuit– Purchased the island of Manhattan from Native Americans for $24

Peter Stuyvesant– Was governor of New Amsterdam and gave New Amsterdam to the English without a fight. The British called New Amsterdam New York.



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